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Olga Lina Lavy (née Klemperer) * 1879
Hochallee 106 (Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude)
further stumbling stones in Hochallee 106:
Dora Dina Abraham
Olga Lavy, née Klemperer, born on 3 June 1879 in Hamburg, deported on 6 Dec. 1941 to Riga
Hochallee 106 (Harvestehude)
Olga Lina Lavy was born in 1879 as the daughter of the merchant Ludwig Klemperer (born on 19 Aug. 1839 in Prague) and Helene Sara Klemperer, née Gaudchau (born on 5 May 1846 in Berlin) in Hamburg at Grindelallee 109 (Rotherbaum). One may assume that, as was already the case at the birth of the older sister, the doctor and obstetrician Henry Windmüller (Fuhlentwiete 95 in Hamburg-Neustadt) was present, whose fee was paid privately.
Olga had two older sisters: Jenny (born on 15 Apr. 1876) and Rosa (born on 7 July 1873). The parents had married in Feb. 1872 in Berlin, the bride’s place of residence. In 1870, Ludwig Klemperer and his brother Simon had founded "S. & L. Klemperer Kaufleute,” a merchant operation in Hamburg on Neue Gröningerstrasse (Hamburg-Altstadt), and in 1881, Ludwig Klemperer acquired Hamburg citizenship (his brothers, Nathan Klemperer, born on 28 July 1846 in Prague, and Simon Klemperer, born on 21 Mar. 1847 in Prague, were also granted civic rights in the Hanseatic city). When Ludwig Klemperer died at his home in Nov. 1902 at the age of 63, he had already retired from professional life for over ten years; he was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Hamburg-Ohlsdorf.
The family lived at Schlump 49/Eimsbüttel (1872), Schlump 48/Eimsbüttel (1873–1877), Schäferkampsallee 28/ Eimsbüttel (1878), Grindelallee 109/ Rotherbaum (1879–1881), Schäferkampsallee 37b/Eimsbüttel (1882), and Schäferkampsallee 32 (1883–1907). We know nothing about the childhood, school days, and possible training of the three daughters.
Olga’s sister Rosa Klemperer (1873–1928) had married the merchant Julius Ephraim (born on 6 Feb. 1860 in Hamburg) in 1892. Her husband had also been a citizen of Hamburg since 1891 and he was co-owner of the companies Friedrich Hundt and F. Grube Nachfolger [Succrs.] (hides and skins) from 1892 to 1895. He started a company under his own name in 1895. The Julius Ephraim Company was listed in the Hamburg directory from 1897 to 1899 with an entry of "Fabrik von Photographie= u. Luxuskarten, Kunstdruckerei und lithograph. Anstalt,” an "art printing shop and lithographic operation manufacturing photographic and de luxe cards” with business premises at Grosse Reichenstrasse 45 (Hamburg-Altstadt). In 1900, the directory contained only "merchant” behind the company name; probably, the business orientation had changed. Later, the office premises were located at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Strasse 19 (Hamburg-Neustadt).
The residential addresses of the childless married Ephraim couple were Eimsbütteler Chaussee 182 (1892), Schlump 86 (1892–1898), Hansastrasse 48 (1898–1900) and, due to changed numbering, Hansastrasse 62 (1901–1909). After Julius Ephraim had retired from business life as a rentier, the couple lived at Oderfelderstrasse 22 (1909–1919). The death of her husband also meant for Rosa Ephraim a move to a smaller apartment at Jungfrauenthal 20 (1920–1928), where her mother Helene Klemperer lived from 1921 until her death in 1924.
In Apr. 1900, Olga Klemperer married the merchant Robert Lavy (1866–1925), who had been a member of the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community since 1905. Robert Lavy (parents: Sally Lavy 1828–1898 and Johanne Lavy née Heiliger; brothers: James Lavy 1862–1942 and Albert Lavy 1863–1932), who was born in Harburg/Elbe, Prussia, was co-founder of the Robert Fricke, Lavy & Co. export company in 1893, which specialized in trade with China and also had branches in Chinese Canton and in the Russian-Siberian Vladivostok. For this purpose, he undertook long business trips, as the passport issued for Brazil in 1903 shows. In 1912, he became the authorized signatory of the Max Marx agency and commission business founded in 1894, which he took over from Theodor Marx in Apr. 1915 as sole owner. The business specialized in French "dry goods and fashion accessories” and, after the change of ownership, it was transformed into an agency of German and foreign industrial companies for Hamburg and Bremen exporters as well as a representation for Hamburg wholesalers and retailers (including representation for Pyrophor Metallgesellschaft in Werden/ Ruhr, Rota-Apparate & Maschinenbau Felix Meyer KG in Aachen, Carl Willms in Solingen, Holbe & Müller in Nuremberg).
The company addresses were Kaiser-Wilhelm-Strasse 82 (until 1915), Kaiser-Wilhelm-Strasse 19 (1916–1924), Kaiser-Wilhelm-Strasse 41 (1925–1926), Mönckebergstrasse 19 (1927–1932), and Steinstrasse 10/ Karstadthaus (1933–1937), which had been built in the 1920s for the headquarters of the Karstadt Group. Olga Lavy was entered in the company register as an authorized signatory for the Max Marx Company as of June 1923.
The Lavy couple had two children: Ludwig (born on 11 Feb. 1901 in Hamburg) and Charlotte "Lotte” (born on 28 Apr. 1906 in Hamburg). The family lived at Hansastrasse 70 on the fourth floor (1901–1906), very close to her sister Jenny Ephraim, then at Klosterallee 49 (1907–1909), Woldsenweg 12 on the ground floor (1910–1928), Jungfrauenthal 20 (1929–1933), where her widowed sister Rosa Ephraim had lived until her death in 1928, and at Hochallee 106 (1934–1941).
Daughter Lotte Lavy (1906–2003) graduated from the "Höhere Töchterschule E. de Fauquemont & A. Lühring,” a girls’ secondary school on Eppendorfer Landstrasse, followed by a year of home economics school on Tesdorpstrasse and a course at the Grone business school. In 1923, she began working as a secretary in her father’s Max Marx export agency; even after her father’s death in 1925, she worked in the company as a secretary and office manager. In the summer of 1928, Charlotte and Olga Lavy applied for a passport for a vacation in Tyrol; the passports were valid until 17 June 1933. After the Nazi party (NSDAP) came to power, she decided to emigrate to Spain on 30 Oct. 1934, according to the Jewish religious tax (Kultussteuer) card file. With her husband Heinz Ascher (born on 3 Feb. 1904 in Berlin), whom she married in Dec. 1934, she then lived in exile in Barcelona. There "I worked together with my husband and helped him in his attempt to establish a new livelihood,” she wrote in the 1960s in the application for restitution.
After the end of the Spanish Civil War, which ended with the victory of the Nazi-friendly putschist general Franco, they relocated their exile to Paris in Feb. 1939. From there, after the Wehrmacht had invaded France in May 1940, they were imprisoned in the Gurs camp at the foot of the Pyrenees. They remained in the camp until Aug. 1940, after which they were able to hide in Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne Departement), about 300 kilometers (about 186 miles) northeast of the camp, with the help of Frenchmen. They changed quarters repeatedly and lived hidden in a factory building for some time.
The husband later recalled this crucial period: "Shortly after my discharge from labor service, I received an order from the gendarmerie in Montauban, France, to report to a collection camp for relocation. I did not comply with this request for fear of being deported (...). About a week later, the police showed up at our apartment. This was in Aug. 1940 and we had to hide before our friend, a Frenchman with whom we lived, could open the door. The gendarme showed a draft notice and asked for me. (…).” On 14 Oct. 1942, the Ascher couple fled to Switzerland, where they were interned in a camp until the end of the war. With the help of the emigrated brother Lawrence (Ludwig) Lavy, they emigrated to the United States, where they arrived in New York on 13 Aug. 1946, and later deleted the letter c from their last name. Charlotte Asher died in 2003.
Their son Ludwig Lavy (1901–1964) had graduated from the Heinrich Hertz-Realgymnasium (Winterhude) in 1919 with a high school diploma, studied one semester of natural sciences at the newly established Hamburg University. Afterward, from Oct. 1919 to Apr. 1920, he studied chemistry at the Technical University of Aachen. From July 1922 to Nov. 1924, i.e., also during the period of hyperinflation in Germany, he was employed at Dresdner Bank in Frankfurt/Main, working as a trader in the stock exchange department, in the exchange office, and in the documents department. In Apr. 1925, he joined his father’s company as a partner and continued it as sole proprietor after his father’s death at the end of Oct. 1925.
In the course of the "Aryanization” of the economy, the Max Marx Company was entered in the register of Jewish companies in Aug. 1938 in accordance with a decree of the Hamburg chief of police. The "Third Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law” ("Dritte Verordnung zum Reichsbürgergesetz”) dated 14 June 1938, which regulated the definition and labeling of Jewish businesses, formed the basis for this regulation. In Dec. 1938, the Hamburg customs investigation department, which operated according to the guidelines of the Nazi regime, used a witness summons as an excuse to transfer Ludwig Lavy to the Hütten prison for allegedly influencing witnesses and for suspected escape. He was not released until 4 Jan. 1939. He had to maintain silence about the prison conditions lest he wanted to run the risk of being arrested again. After that, he made intensive efforts to emigrate, which was presumably also underlying the aim of his imprisonment and a condition of his release.
On 3 Mar. 1939, the additional compulsory first name of "Israel” was entered on Ludwig Lavy’s birth certificate, "in accordance with Sec. 2 of the Second Ordinance regarding the Implementation of the Legislation on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names [§ 2 der II. Verordnung zur Durchführung des Gesetzes über die Änderung von Familien- und Vornamen] dated 17 Aug. 1938.” On 13 Mar. 1939, after the Hamburg NSDAP Reich Governor (Reichsstatthalter) had issued a corresponding decree, he was ordered to close his business (which was eventually deleted from the company register on 3 Nov. 1939). His emigration to Britain, planned for Apr. 1939, failed at short notice because of engine damage on the aircraft he had booked. Despite the immediate trip by train to Hoek van Holland, by night boat to Harwich, and by train to London, he did not arrive in time for the ship’s departure. The beginning of the Second World War in Sept. 1939 and the classification of Ludwig Lavy as an enemy alien made further emigration temporarily impossible. Only on 11 June 1940 did Ludwig Lavy manage to continue his journey from Liverpool to New York aboard the "S.S. Britannic” of the Cunard Line; in the USA, his cousin Kurt Ephraim sponsored him. His large transport container (Lift) and a few suitcases had been left with the Hamburg shipping agency and they were auctioned off in 1941 by order of the Hamburg State Police, the proceeds being withheld by the Nazi state.
Olga’s sister Jenny Marie Klemperer (1876–1959) had been married since 1895 to the merchant James Ephraim (born on 29 Nov. 1862 in Hamburg, died in 1931), the brother of Julius Ephraim. James Ephraim (parents: Samuel Ephraim and Sophie, née Arnthal) was the owner of the company for hides and skins, F. Grube Nachfolger [Succrs.], in Hamburg (Trommelstrasse 22 and 22a), which he had co-founded in 1890; Jenny Ephraim had been granted power of attorney for the company on 10 Aug. 1914, a few days after the beginning of the First World War. James and Jenny Ephraim and their three sons first lived in Hamburg at Eimsbütteler Chaussee 182 (1895), Eimsbüttelerstrasse 45 (1895–1900), and Parkallee 12 (1900–1904). In Sept. 1904, they deregistered for Nienstedten. In the following years, they lived in Hamburg’s neighboring City of Altona, then still Prussian, on the beach promenade/municipality of Klein-Flottbek (including 1920–1924), Elbchaussee 21/municipality of Klein-Flottbek (1925–1927), Elbchaussee 174/City of Altona (1928–1930), Am Strand 3/City of Altona (1931–1933).
In Altona’s directory of 1933, widow Jenny Ephraim was named company owner of F. Grube Nachfolger. The business was deleted from the company register in Sept. 1939. Around 1934, Jenny moved to Hamburg and joined the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community in Sept. 1936. In the Hanseatic city, she resided in changing subtenant arrangements, according to entries in the Jewish religious tax (Kultussteuer) card file for 1936 to 1939, at Alsterufer 19 (guesthouse Frau Dr. S. Gilg), Haynstrasse? 40, and Hochallee 106 (probably with Olga Lavy). For some time within that period, she reportedly lived at Geffckenstrasse 6 (Eppendorf) in Dec. 1938 (according to the 1938 Hamburg directory, the tenants there were the commercial agents Carl Bornheim, Hans Blum in the Adolf Blum & Popper Company, and Paul Hertz, a retired university professor), as the Hamburg registry office noted when entering her additional compulsory first name.
In July 1939, Jenny was allowed to emigrate after she had sold her real estate in Jan. 1939 and paid about 220,000 RM (reichsmark) in Jewish property tax, Reich flight tax (Reichsfluchtsteuer), and emigration tax to the German Reich. Jenny Ephraim died in Lima, Peru, in 1959. Her three sons, Kurt Ephraim (1897–1973) with his wife Irma née Wertheim (born 5 Apr. 1907 in Hamburg), Eduard "Edu” Ephraim (born in 1899) with his wife Jenny, and Hans (Juan) Ephraim (1901–1978) with his wife Irma, née Honig (born in 1907), also managed to emigrate from Nazi Germany in time. All three sons worked as independent merchants in Hamburg in the early 1930s. Kurt and Eduard had attended the Technical University in Hannover after graduating from the Realgymnasium [a high school focused on science, math, and modern languages] on Königstrasse (Altona).
Olga Lavy’s circle of friends and relatives had thus become smaller and smaller, as can be reconstructed from letters of son Ludwig from the USA in Oct. and Nov. 1941. In Apr. 1939, like all others left behind, Olga had to have the additional compulsory first name of "Sara” entered on her birth certificate at the Hamburg registry office.
At the time of the German national census in May 1939, in which the details of the Jewish inhabitants were recorded separately, Olga Lavy, by then 60 years old, lived at Hochallee 106 on the second floor. Her son Ludwig Lavy had also lived there until he emigrated in Mar. 1939, as had Dora Abraham, née Heiliger (born on 5 Aug. 1872 in Braunschweig), who was deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on 15 July 1942.
Olga Lavy’s assets, which had amounted to 60,000 RM in 1935, had shrunk to 40,000 RM by 1940. Under the "Ordinance Concerning the Reporting of Jewish Assets” ("Verordnung über die Anmeldung des Vermögens von Juden”) dated 26 April 1938, Olga Lavy had to disclose her assets to the foreign currency office of the Chief Finance Administrator (Oberfinanzpräsident). The cover letters of the questionnaires sent out already contained an unmistakable threat: "I would like to point out that you are obliged to submit the required declaration correctly and completely, and that failure to comply with this requirement is subject to severe penalties.” On 9 Mar. 1939, Olga Lavy – like other Jews, too – was required by an ordinance dated 21 Feb. 1939 to surrender all jewelry and silver items to the purchasing office of the "Öffentliche Leihanstalt” (public lending institution) at Bäckerbreitergang 73 (Hamburg-Neustadt) in return for a small monetary value. In Sept. 1939, she also had to turn in her radio set without replacement.
In the records of the former lawyer Ernst Kaufmann (1880–1944), who by then was only licensed as a "Jewish legal adviser” ("Konsulent”), some documents of Olga Lavy’s efforts to leave the country have been preserved: Duplicates of registry office documents from Feb. 1941, passport photos from May 1941, and the "Questionnaire for Emigrants” with the emigration destination USA, filled out and signed by Ernst Kaufmann on 11 June 1941. On 11 June 1941, Ernst Kaufmann wrote to Olga Lavy, "I have just spoken with Dr. Bachmann, and he told me that the special steamer for which you are registered will in all probability leave Lisbon in early August, according to a telegram that has just arrived from Lisbon. (...) Otherwise, you would not have a chance of passage until Oct. 1941. A departure in June would not be possible, if only because, as Dr. Bachmann told me, the visa for Lisbon takes about 3 weeks.”
The emigration failed, though reasons are not noted in the file. In addition, Olga Lavy now also called in Erich Riesenfeld (born on 20 June 1897 in Zawodzia/Upper Silesia), with his office based at Grosser Burstah 11, who was "officially licensed to assist emigrants” in Hamburg. His son Ludwig (meanwhile renamed Lawrence) sent a telegram from New York on 5 Sept. 1941: "Papers ready for further processing required that Hilfsverein [Relief Organization] Nacomref New York, referring to case 25106, cables that departure is possible and at which consulate visa can be picked up.” Henry Chassel (born on 28 Jan. 1876 in Brody/Galicia), from 1928 to 1939 chairman of the Dammtor Synagogue and full-time employee in the Hamburg branch of the Relief Organization of German Jews (Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden), interpreted the telegram as meaning that Mrs. Lavy would have to obtain an exit permit to a neutral foreign country and wait there for the further processing of her case at Nacomref. The Hilfsverein in Berlin suggested a telegram to Nacomref in New York, which was in fact sent for 32.60 RM. The Nacomref relief organization might have been the "National Coordinating Committee for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants coming from Germany (NCC),” founded in New York in June 1934.
In late 1941, the Nazi regime had changed its policy against the Jews to aim at expulsion and had begun preparations for deportations to the areas conquered by the Wehrmacht in the East. A secret decree issued by the Reich Security Main Office on 23 Oct. 1941 prohibited further emigration of Jews from Germany. Meanwhile, those willing to emigrate were confronted with delays, communication difficulties, and rampant regulations, the background of which they did not know.
Since emigration to the United States was stalled, Olga Lavy tried to obtain a visa for Cuba. On 24 Nov. 1941, Ludwig Lavy wrote to his mother that the Cuban visa would be ready at the embassy in Berlin, but it was not until 3 Dec. 1941 that the embassy sent Olga Lavy a form indicating that the Cuban entry permit had arrived. On 4 December, the letter was postmarked in Berlin-Charlottenburg, too late though, for departure was no longer permitted anyway, and two days later, Olga Lavy was deported by the Gestapo.
The Nazi state confiscated and auctioned her household effects (proceeds amounting to 2,000 RM) and her moving goods, apparently already put in storage, (proceeds amounting to 6,500 RM), with the auction proceeds amounting to only a fraction of the actual value, however. Among the items listed in the 1941 inventory of moving goods that Olga Lavy was supposed to export in the event of emigration (and that were thus partially subject to additional taxes) were a fur coat and a muff, hiking boots, opera glasses, which the Lavy spouses had received as a wedding gift in 1900, a tea trolley, reading glasses and distance glasses, the then modern buckle shoes, a travel clock, and a wristwatch as a replacement for the more valuable watch that she had had to turn in to the public purchasing point in Mar. 1939.
Olga Lavy was deported to occupied Latvia on 6 Dec. 1941, to the Jungfernhof subcamp (Jumpravmuiža) of the Riga Ghetto. The dilapidated Jungfernhof estate consisted of a manor house, five smaller buildings, three very large wooden barns, and several cattle sheds. Many camp inmates froze to death in the unheated shelters or died of hunger and typhus, while sick people were murdered outside the estate. On 26 Mar. 1942, about 1,800 camp inmates that could not perform forced labor because of their age or diseases were shot in the surrounding forests (cover designation "Aktion Dünamünde” – "Operation Dünamünde”).
When and how Olga Lavy died in the Jungfernhof subcamp is not documented. Attorney Edgar Haas (1877–1946) noted, "Mrs. Lavy ‘emigrated’ on 25 June 1943 and died in July 1942,” though it is not known where he had gained knowledge about the date of death. The Hamburg District Court (Amtsgericht) set her date of death for the restitution proceedings in the 1950s at 8 May 1945.
Translator: Erwin Fink
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.
Stand: December 2020
© Björn Eggert
Quellen: 1; 4; 5; Staatsarchiv Hamburg (StaH) 231-7 (Handelsregister), A 1 Band 26 (HR A 6600 F. Grube Nachfolger); StaH 231-7 (Handelsregister) A 1 Band 46 (A 11197 Max Marx; A 11225 Julius Ephraim); StaH 332-3 (Zivilstandsaufsicht), A 294 (Geburtsregister 1873, Rosa Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8914 u. 1189/1876 (Geburtsregister 1876, Jenny Marie Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8938 u. 1787/1879 (Geburtsregister 1879, Olga Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8558 u. 355/1892 (Heiratsregister 1892, Julius Ephraim u. Rosa Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8574 u. 228/1895 (Heiratsregister 1895, James Ephraim u. Jenny Marie Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 4546 u. 44/1898 (Sterberegister Wandsbek I 1898, Sally Levy); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8605 u. 183/1900 (Heiratsregister 1900, Robert Lavy u. Olga Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 7960 u. 917/1902 (Sterberegister 1902, Ludwig Klemperer); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8053 u. 3/1919 (Sterberegister 1.12.1918, Julius Ephraim); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8077 u. 187/ 1924 (Sterberegister 1924, Helene Klemperer); StaH 332-7 (Staatsangehörigkeitsaufsicht), A I e 40 Band 9 (Bürgerregister 1876–1896 A-K, Nr. 9834 Ludwig Klemperer); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), Alte Einwohnermeldekartei 1892–1925, K 6046 (James Ephraim, Julius Ephraim), K 6378 (Ludwig Klemperer 1839–1902, Simon Klemperer, Nathan Klemperer), K 6493 (Lavy); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 88 (Reisepassprotokoll 1903, Nr. 1564 Robert Lavy); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 362 (Reisepassprotokoll 1928, Nr. 8596 Charlotte Lavy, Nr. 8597 Olga Lavy); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 4470 (Olga Lavy); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 24509 (Lawrence Lavy); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 31451 (Charlotte Asher geb. Lavy); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 3152 (Jenny Ephraim geb. Klemperer); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 19274 (Kurt Ephraim); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 22631 (Eduard Ephraim); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 24757 (Hans/ Juan Ephraim); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 1539 (Max Nathusius); StaH 522-1 (Jüdische Gemeinden), 992b (Kultussteuerkartei der Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde Hamburg), Jenny Ephraim geb. Klemperer, Helene Klemperer, Olga Lavy, Robert Lavy, Erich Riesenfeld, Hillel/Henry Chassel, Clara Memelsdorf geb. Kauer, Martin H. Wertheim; StaH 621-1/84 (Firmenarchiv "Jüd. Konsulent" Ernst Kaufmann), 55 (Vermögensverwaltung Ludwig u. Olga Lavy, 1938–1942, mit Passbild Olga Lavy); Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Hamburger Jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus, Gedenkbuch, 1995, S. 229; Jüdischer Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Gräberverzeichnis, Ludwig Klemperer (Grablage B 10-116); Handelskammer Hamburg, Handelsregisterinformationen (Max Marx, HR A 11197; Julius Ephraim, HR A 11225; F. Grube Nachfl., HR A 6600; Hundt & Petersen, HR A 20448); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1910, S. 168 (Julius Ephraim), 194 (Robert Fricke, Lavy & Co.), 229 (F. Grube Nachf.), 425 (Max Marx); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1926, S. 673 (Max Marx); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1935, S. 551 (Max Marx); Hamburger Adressbuch (Klemperer) 1870, 1872, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1880–1884, 1886, 1890; Hamburger Adressbuch (Lavy) 1901, 1903, 1905–1910, 1927–1930, 1933–1935, 1941; Hamburger Adressbuch (Firma Max Marx) 1914–1917, 1919, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1931–1933, 1937; Hamburger Adressbuch (Julius Ephraim), 1892–1895, 1897–1902, 1908–1910, 1912, 1918–1921, 1925, 1927; Hamburger Adressbuch (James Ephraim), 1895–1897, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1904; Altonaer Adressbuch/ Gemeinde Kleinflottbek (J. Ephraim) 1919, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928; Altonaer Adressbuch/Stadt Altona (J. Ephraim) 1930–1933; Frank Bajohr, "Arisierung" in Hamburg. Die Verdrängung der jüdischen Unternehmer 1933–1945, Hamburg 1998, S. 365 (Firma Max Marx, Mönckebergstr. 5); Naftali Bar-Giora Bamberger, Memor-Buch, Die jüdischen Friedhöfe in Wandsbek, Band 2, Hamburg 1997, S. 97 (Jüdischer Friedhof Wandsbek, Jenfelder Straße, Schlomo Sally Lavy-Levy, gestorben 11.2.1898, Grab Nr. 99, Hanche Johanna Lavy-Levy, kein Geburtsname, gestorben 8.2.1912, Grab-Nr. 98); Friedrich Detlev Hardegen (Hrsg.), Hingesehen – Weggeschaut, Die Novemberpogrome 1938 in Augenzeugenberichten, Stettin 2013, S. 150 (Erlass); Heiko Morisse, Jüdische Rechtsanwälte in Hamburg, Ausgrenzung und Verfolgung im NS-Staat, Hamburg 2003, S. 132 (Edgar Haas), 139 (Ernst Kaufmann); Wilhelm Mosel, Wegweiser zu ehemaligen jüdischen Stätten in Hamburg, Heft 3, Hamburg 1989, S. 123, 124, 130, 146 (Henry Chassel, mit Abbildung); Bernhard Press, Judenmord in Lettland 1941–1945, Berlin 1988, S. 114–115; Herbert A. Strauss (Editor), Jewish Immigrants of the Nazi Period in the USA, Volume 1 Archival Resources, S. 62/63 (NCC); Anna von Villiez, Mit aller Kraft verdrängt. Entrechtung und Verfolgung ‚nicht arischer‘ Ärzte in Hamburg 1933 bis 1945, München/ Hamburg 2009, S. 363 (Ludwig Mosheim), S. 422 (Joachim Wolff); Auskunft von Dr. Susanne Heim/Institut für Zeitgeschichte München – Berlin; www.tracingthepast.org (Volkszählung Mai 1939), Olga Lavy, Max Nathusius, Edith Nathusius geb. Jessurum, Dora Abraham geb. Heiligen; www.ancestry.de (Charlotte Asher, Kurt Ephraim, eingesehen 3.4.2017); www.ancestry.de (Martin Wertheim: Passagierliste S.S. Washington 1935, US-Sozialversicherungsindex; Lotte Wertheim: Passagierliste 1936, US-Sozialversicherungsidex); www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de (Erich Riesenfeld, Henry Chassel, eingesehen 4.5.2017).
Zur Nummerierung häufig genutzter Quellen siehe Link "Recherche und Quellen".